جزوات و نمونه سوالات ام بی ای آنلاین
بزرگترین اجتماع دانشجویان MBA دانشگاه پیام نور
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MBA-ام بی ای-مدیر عامل

مدیر عامل

بینش راهبردی از مهم‌ترین وظایف مدیرعامل است. مدیرعاملان، بسته به اینکه سازمان و شرکتی که در آن فعالیت می‌کنند مربوط به کدام بخش کسب‌وکار است، مأموریت‌ها، اهداف و محصولات از چه قرار است و… باید امور متنوع و متفاوتی را مدیریت کنند که در راستای منافع سازمان پیش برود. اندازه‌ی سازمان و شرکت نیز در نوع فعالیت‌های مدیرعامل تأثیرگذار است. در هر حال، مدیرعامل بالاترین فرد از نظر درجه‌بندی شغلی است. شرح شغلی، وظایف مدیرعامل به طور روزانه و… برای مدیران عامل سازمان‌ها متفاوت است. اما چهارچوبی کلی به‌عنوان وظایف مدیرعامل وجود دارد که در ادامه‌ی آن را شرح خواهیم داد. با ما همراه باشید:

 

چهارچوب کلی وظایف مدیرعامل

از وظایف کلی مدیرعامل می‌توان به خلق، برنامه ریزی، پیاده‌سازی و یک‌پارچه کردن مسیرهای راهبردی سازمان اشاره کرد. یعنی در حیطه‌ی وظایف مدیرعامل، نظارت و مسئولیت تمام اجزا و بخش‌های سازمان وجود دارد.

مدیرعامل باید نسبت به این موضوع مطمئن باشد که به رهبری سازمان بر محیط رقابتی داخلی و خارجی کاملا واقف است، فرصت‌های توسعه، مشتریان و بازارها را به‌خوبی می‌شناسد و با توسعه‌ی صنایع جدید و استاندارها مأنوس است.

در سازمانی نوعی، یکی از وظایف مدیرعامل گزارش دادن به هیئت‌مدیره است. در سازمان‌های دولتی نیز مدیرعامل وظیفه‌ی مدیریت سازمان یا واحدی از بخش‌های مختلف ارگان‌های دولتی را اداره می‌کند و باید درباره‌ی فعالیت‌های خود به نماینده‌ی دولت مانند فرمان‌دار و… گزارش بدهد. مدیرعامل از سوی هیئت‌مدیره اختیارات خود را کسب می‌کند.

مدیرعامل می‌تواند صاحب کسب‌وکار نیز باشد و آن را راه‌اندازی کرده باشد. از این رو، نسبت به کسب‌وکار تعهدی جدی از جانب او وجود خواهد داشت یا ممکن است مدیرعامل از سهام‌داران مجموعه تحت مدیریت خود نیز باشد. در این شرایط، هیئت‌مدیره‌ای نیز وجود دارد اما اقتدار آن اسمی و مشاوره به مدیرعامل است.

فرقی نمی‌کند که مدیرعامل هم در جایگاه ریاست فعالیت دارد هم در جایگاه مدیریت عامل، در هر حال صدور فرمان و مدیریت کلی وظیفه اوست و بنا به نیازهای سازمان، باید امور مختلف را سروسامان بدهد. بنابراین وظایف مدیرعامل از سازمانی به سازمان دیگر متفاوت خواهد بود.

مانند تمام سطوح دیگر مدیریتی در سازمان، شروع فعالیت و نقش مدیرعامل بر اساس اصولی پایه‌ای درباره‌ی مسئولیت‌های شغلی همراه است. هر مدیرعامل وظایف، مسئولیت‌ها و پاسخ‌گویی را از قرار زیر متعهد می‌شود:

مدیر عامل

مدیر عامل

مسئولیت‌های مدیرعامل

  • ایجاد، ترویج و اجرای چشم‌انداز سازمانی، رسالت و هدایت عمومی و کلی سازمان. هدایت سازمان به سمت توسعه و اجرای راهبردهای کلی سازمان.
  • هدایت، راهنمایی، رهبری و ارزیابی فعالیت سایر رئیسان، قائم‌مقام‌ها و مدیران بر اساس ساختار گزارش‌دهی و ارزیابی سازمان. در ارزیابی امور مربوط به مدیران، مدیرعامل باید مطمئن شود که برای دست‌یابی به اهداف و دستاوردهای مختلف، امور از صافی راهبردی سازمان گذر می‌کنند یا خیر.
  • در صورت لزوم، درخواست مشاوره و راهنمایی از هیئت‌مدیره.
  • تنظیم و اجرای برنامه‌ریزی راهبردی برای هدایت مدیران سازمان. اطمینان حاصل کردن از اینکه در برنامه‌ریزی، ورودی‌ها به شکلی صحیح و معنادار بررسی و در طرح و برنامه گنجانده شده‌اند؛ به طوری‌که شکست و عقب‌گردی در اجرای طرح و برنامه متوجه سازمان نخواهد شد.
  • پیش‌بینی تکمیل و پایان عملیات سازمانی در راستای برنامه‌های راهبردی تعیین‌شده. به عبارت دیگر، توجه به طراحی سازمان، به شکلی که عملیات مختلف را حمایت و تجهیز کند.
  • ارزیابی موفقیت سازمان در رسیدن به اهداف؛ اطمینان حاصل کردن از اینکه تمام اهداف راهبردی سازمانی سنجش‌پذیر هستند و نتایج می‌تواند به شکل تصویری و با توافق تیمی به‌اشتراک گذاشته شود.
  • توجه به محیط رقابتی بیرونی و درونی، فرصت‌های توسعه، مشتریان، بازار، توسعه‌ی صنایع جدید و استانداردهای تازه و… ؛ تلاش برای یافتن فرصت‌های بالقوه رشد یا فروش با هدف ارزش‌آفرینی برای ذی‌نفعان.
  • مشارکت دادن و نمایش فعالیت‌های حرفه‌ای سازمان و امور مرتبط با حوزه‌ی مسئولیت اجتماعی در سطح محلی، استانی و ملی. سایر مدیران در صورت تمایل و یا تعیین وظیفه برای آنها می‌توانند در این مقوله مشارکت داشته باشند.
  • مشارکت در رویدادها و برنامه‌های مرتبط با صنعت؛ این حضور باعث حسن شهرت و تقویت مهارت‌های مدیرعامل می‌شود. مدیرعامل باید مطمئن شود که تمام کارکنان به اهمیت این مشارکت آگاه هستند و برای موفقیت سازمان در این راستا تلاش می کنند.
  • نمایش و به‌کارگیری رهبری برای هدایت رسالت سازمان به سوی موفقیت؛ این رهبری شامل تعیین چشم‌اندازی مناسب، جذب نیروهای سازمانی و توجه به تمام ابعاد رهبری برای رسیدن به موفقیت می‌شود.
  • همکاری با نیروهایی که مدیرعامل را در اجرای وظایفش حمایت و یاری می‌کنند؛ مدیرعامل باید برای موفقیت سازمان تمام وظایفی را که در شرح شغلی او آمده است، به کمک نیروهای مناسب اجرا نماید.
  • مدیرعامل باید فضای سازمان را به سمت سازمانی یادگیرنده پیش ببرد. به طوری‌که تمام اعضا، فرصت رشد و یادگیری مداوم مهارت‌ها و دانش را داشته باشند. تنها با رشد و توسعه فردی نیروها در سازمان، امکان دست‌یابی به موفقیت وجود خواهد داشت.
  • مدیرعامل باید به سایر مدیران اطلاع‌رسانی‌های لازم را درباره‌ی ارزیابی عملکرد به روش‌های مختلف انجام دهد. این ارزیابی می‌تواند در قالب‌های مختلف مانند نظارت و هدایت، سیستم پاداش‌دهی یا وضع قوانین انضباطی عملکرد مدیران را بررسی کند. در صورت وجود نداشتن برنامه‌های ارزیابی و پاسخ‌گویی نیروها، مدیرعامل با سازمانی روبه‌رو خواهد بود که در آن بهانه‌تراشی و فرار از مسئولیت وجود دارد و نتیجه‌ی این کوتاهی خدمت‌ها به شکل ناکامی دامان تمام نیروهای کاری را خواهد گرفت.

مدیرعامل، نقشی کلیدی در هدایت سازمان به سمت پیروزی و موفقیت دارد. اگر وظایف مدیرعامل به خوبی اجرا شود، سازمان در جهت سود و رونق بیشتر حرکت خواهد کرد و اهداف مثبت یکی پس از دیگری به وقوع می‌پیوندند.

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